Xunzi, or Hsun Tzu (340?–245? B.C.), Chinese philosopher. He is considered a follower of Kongfuzi (Confucius; 551–479 B.C.). Whereas Mengzi (Mencius), the “Second Sage” (4th century B.C.), interpreted Kongfuzi in an optimistic light, teaching the intrinsic goodness of human nature, Xunzi taught that human nature is intrinsically evil and that morality must be taught and reinforced by society. His teachings are articulated in the book Xunzi.
See also: Philosophy.