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Xenophon (431–355 B.C.), Greek soldier and author. An Athenian and admirer of Socrates, he joined the Greek expedition supporting Cyrus the Younger (401) and after its defeat led the Greeks back in a heroic 1,500-mi (2,414-km) march recounted in his famous Anabasis. He later fought for Sparta, whose conservative militarism he admired. Retiring to the country, he wrote his famous volumes of Greek history, memoirs of Socrates, a romanticized account of Cyrus the Great's education, and works on horsemanship and politics.

See also: Greece, Ancient.

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