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Syracuse, city in southeastern Sicily, on the Ionian Sea. Founded by Corinthians (734 B.C.), it became a brilliant center of Greek culture, notably under Hiero I (r.478–466 B.C.) and Dionysius the Elder (r.405–367 B.C.). Syracuse was defeated by Rome in 212 B.C. Later conquerors included the Arabs (878) and Normans (1085). The modern provincial capital, a port and tourist center, has many ancient monuments.

See also: Sicily.

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