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Sufism, Muslim mystical philosophical and literary movement dating from the 10th and 11th centuries. Stressing personal communion with God through ascetic practices or quietism, it has spread throughout Islam in a variety of forms, most apparently in Persia. Al-Ghazali was Sufism's greatest philosophical exponent, and among its great literary exponents are the poets Omar Khayyam and Hafiz.

See also: Omar Khayyam.

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