Anthrax, infectious disease affecting livestock and, more rarely, humans, causing skin pustules and lung damage. Anthrax spores, which can survive for years, may be picked up from infected animals or bone meal. It was the first disease shown (by Robert Koch in 1876) to be caused by bacteria. A vaccine effective on sheep and cattle was developed by Louis Pasteur. Anthrax is now rare in developed countries.
See also: Pasteur, Louis.