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Adrian IV

frederick crowned william

Adrian IV (Nicholas Breakspear; 1100?–59), only Englishman to become pope (1154–59). He crowned Frederick Barbarossa as Holy Roman Emperor in 1155, but angered Frederick by his persistent demands for papal supremacy and also by excommunicating the crowned king of Sicily, William I the Bad. Adrian then invested William upon his pledge of allegiance and service to him. He also promised excommunication for Frederick when the latter declared himself ruler of northern Italy, but he died before carrying out his threat.

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